1.2- Characteristics The Zingiberaceae have a pantropical distribution in the tropics of Africa, Asia, and the Americas, with their greatest diversity in Southeast Asia. Members of the family are small to large herbaceous plants with distichous leaves with basal sheaths that overlap to form a pseudostem. The plants are either self-supporting or epiphytic. Flowers arehermaphroditic, usually strongly zygomorphic, in determinate cymose inflorescences, and subtended by conspicuous, spirally arranged bracts. The perianth is composed of two whorls, a fused tubular calyx, and a tubular corolla with one lobe larger than the other two. Flowers typically have two of their stamenoids (sterilestamens) fused to form a petaloid lip, and have only one fertile stamen. The ovary is inferior and topped by two nectaries, the stigma is funnel-shaped. Some genera yield essential oils used in the perfume industry (Alpinia, Hedychium).
The Family Zingiberaceae has 4 Subfamilies: 3.1- Subfamily Siphonochiloideae + Tribe Siphonochileae - Genus Aulotandra - Genus Siphonochilus 3.2- Subfamily Tamijioideae + Tribe Tamijieae - Genus Tamijia