1.2- Genus Triticum L. - Wheat genus + Overview Triticum L. (Wheat) is a Genus of Triticeae Tribe, Pooideae Subfamily, Poaceae Subfamily. Wheat (Triticum spp.) is a cereal grain, originally from the Levant region of the Near East but now cultivated worldwide. The most common forms of wheat are white and red wheat. However, other natural forms of wheat exist. For example, in the highlands of Ethiopia grows purple wheat, a tetraploid species of wheat that is rich in anti-oxidants. Other commercially minor but nutritionally promising species of naturally evolved wheat species include black, yellow and blue wheat. In 2013, Wheat is grown on more than 218,000,000hectares (540,000,000acres), larger than for any other crop. World trade in wheat is greater than for all other crops combined. With rice, wheat is the world's most favored staple food. It is a major diet component because of the wheat plant’s agronomic adaptability with the ability to grow from near arctic regions to equator, from sea level to plains of Tibet, approximately 4,000 m (13,000 ft) above sea level. In addition to agronomic adaptability, wheat offers ease of grain storage and ease of converting grain into flour for making edible, palatable, interesting and satisfying foods. Wheat is the most important source of carbohydrate in a majority of countries. + Top 15 of wheat producers in 2013 are: China, India, United States, Russia, France, Canada, Germany, Pakistan, Australia, Ukraine, Turkey, Iran, Kazakhstan, United Kingdom and Poland.
2- Taxonomy of the Genus Triticum
2.1- Major cultivated species of wheat + Hexaploid Species 1- Common wheat or Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) - A hexaploid species that is the most widely cultivated in the world. 2- Spelt (Triticum spelta) - Another hexaploid species cultivated in limited quantities. Spelt is sometimes considered a subspecies of the closely related species common wheat (Triticum aestivum), in which case its botanical name is considered to be Triticum aestivum subsp. spelta. + Tetraploid Species 1-Durum (Triticum durum) - The only tetraploid form of wheat widely used today, and the second most widely cultivated wheat. 2- Emmer (Triticum dicoccon) - A tetraploid species, cultivated in ancient times but no longer in widespread use. 3- Khorasan (Triticum turgidum ssp. turanicum also called Triticum turanicum) is a tetraploid wheat species. It is an ancient grain type; Khorasan refers to a historical region in modern-day Afghanistan and the northeast of Iran. This grain is twice the size of modern-day wheat and is known for its rich nutty flavor. + Diploid Species 1- Einkorn (Triticum monococcum) - A diploid species with wild and cultivated variants. Domesticated at the same time as emmer wheat, but never reached the same importance. Classes used in the United States: - Durum - Very hard, translucent, light-colored grain used to make semolina flour forpasta & bulghur; high in protein, specifically, gluten protein. - Hard Red Spring - Hard, brownish, high-protein wheat used for bread and hard baked goods. Bread Flour and high-gluten flours are commonly made from hard red spring wheat. It is primarily traded at the Minneapolis Grain Exchange. - Hard Red Winter - Hard, brownish, mellow high-protein wheat used for bread, hard baked goods and as an adjunct in other flours to increase protein in pastry flour for pie crusts. Some brands of unbleached all-purpose flours are commonly made from hard red winter wheat alone. It is primarily traded on the Kansas City Board of Trade. One variety is known as "turkey red wheat", and was brought to Kansas by Mennonite immigrants from Russia. - Soft Red Winter - Soft, low-protein wheat used for cakes, pie crusts, biscuits, andmuffins. Cake flour, pastry flour, and some self-rising flours with baking powder and salt added, for example, are made from soft red winter wheat. It is primarily traded on the Chicago Board of Trade. - Hard White - Hard, light-colored, opaque, chalky, medium-protein wheat planted in dry, temperate areas. Used for bread and brewing. - Soft White - Soft, light-colored, very low protein wheat grown in temperate moist areas. Used for pie crusts and pastry. Pastry flour, for example, is sometimes made from soft white winter wheat. Red wheats may need bleaching; therefore, white wheats usually command higher prices than red wheats on the commodities market. Source: Wheat - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia