Edited by Ho Dinh Hai Long An - Vietnam Updated: 12/5/2015
1- Introduction to the Subfamily Bambusoideae
1.1- Overview TheBambusoideaeis asubfamilyof thetrue grassfamilyPoaceae, and is characterized by having 3stigmasand are mostly tree-like. However, there are uncertainties at practically every taxonomic level within the Bambusoideae, and different types of data (floral morphology, vegetative structures, anatomy, and genetics) often result in support for differing relationships. The Bambusoideae generally consists of a distinct “core” group of genera, the woody bamboos (Bambuseae) and an associated group of genera of questionable affinity, the herbaceous bamboos (Olyreae). The bambusoid taxa have long been considered the most “primitive” grasses, mostly because of the presence ofbracteate, indeterminate inflorescences, “pseudospikelets,” and flowers with threelodicules, sixstamens, and three stigmas. 1.2- Taxonomy research In a recent studyDNA sequences for thechloroplastgene ndhF were analyzed to address phylogenetic relationships among the major lineages of thePoaceae. They found that two tribes of neotropical herbaceous bamboo tribes, theStreptochaeteaeand Anomochloeae, are resolved as the most basalcladewithin the grass family, confirming the hypothesis that elements within the Bambusoideaesensu latoare basal within the Poaceae, and also showing that the Bambusoideae s.l. ispolyphyletic. A recent study which analyzed the phylogenetic relationships within the Bambusoideae using rp116 intron sequence data from chloroplast DNA was able to further resolve some of the uncertainties remaining in Clark et al.’s (1995) analysis. Kelchner and Clark’s (1997) analysis resolved a Bambusoideae clade with twomonophyleticgroups: - The Bambuseae (woody bamboos) - The Olyreae/Parianeae (herbaceous bamboos). Within the Bambuseae two clades were recovered corresponding to temperate and tropical woody bamboos, and the tropical taxa were even further divided into New World and Old World clades. The distinct lineages produced strongly correspond with geographic divisions, with major clades representing the New World herbaceous species (Olyreae /Parianeae), New World tropical woody bamboos, Old World tropical woody bamboos, and North temperate woody bamboos (all Bambuseae).
2- Taxonomy of the Subfamily Bambusoideae
In a recent study DNA sequences for the chloroplast gene ndhF were analyzed to address phylogenetic relationships among the major lineages of the Poaceae. The Subfamily Bambusoideae is divided into two groups: 1- TheOryzodae group 2- TheBambusodae The Subfamily Bambusoideae has 13 tribes, as following: