Edited by Ho Dinh Hai Long An - Vietnam Updated: 8/3/2015
1- Introduction to The Order Brassicales
1.1- Overview The Brassicales are an order of flowering plants, belonging to the eurosids II group of dicotyledons under the APG II system. One character common to many members of the order is the production of glucosinolate (mustard oil) compounds. Most systems of classification have included this order, although sometimes under the name Capparales (the name chosen depending on which is thought to have priority). Under theCronquist system, the Brassicales were called the Capparales, and included among the "Dilleniidae". The only families included were the BrassicaceaeandCapparaceae(treated as separate families), theTovariaceae,Resedaceae, andMoringaceae. Other taxa now included here were placed in various orders. The families Capparaceae and Brassicaceae are closely related. One group, consisting of Cleomeand related genera, was traditionally included in the Capparaceae but doing so results in a paraphyletic Capparaceae. Therefore, this group is generally now either included in the Brassicaceae or as its own family, Cleomaceae.
2.4- Family Capparaceae TheCapparaceae(orCapparidaceae), commonly known as thecaperfamily, are a family of plants in the orderBrassicales. As currently circumscribed, the family contains 33 genera and about 700 species. The largest genera are Capparis(about 150 species),Maerua(about 100 species),Boscia(37 species) andCadaba(30 species). The Capparaceae have long been considered closely related to and have often been included in the Brassicaceae, the mustard family (APG, 1998), in part because both groups produce glucosinolate (mustard oil) compounds. Subsequent molecular studies support Capparaceae sensu stricto as paraphyletic with respect to the Brassicaceae.
2.6- Family Cleomaceae TheCleomaceaeare a small family offlowering plantsin the orderBrassicales, comprising about 300 species in 10 genera, or about 150 species in 17 genera.These genera were previously included in the familyCapparaceae, but were raised to a distinct family whenDNAevidence suggested the genera included in it are more closely related to theBrassicaceaethan they are to the Capparaceae. TheAPG II systemallows for Cleomaceae to be included in Brassicaceae. The genera in Cleomaceae include: 1- Cleome 2- Cleomella 3- Dactylaena 4- Haptocarpum 5- Oxystylis 6- Podandrogyne 7- Polanisia 8- Wislizenia
2.7- Family Emblingiaceae TheEmblingiaceaeare a family offlowering plantsin the orderBrassicales. It comprises only one genus: Emblingia. Emblingiais a monospecific plant genus containing the species Emblingia calceoliflora, a herbaceous prostrate subshrub endemic to Western Australia. It has no close relatives, and is now generally placed alone in family Emblingiaceae.
2.8- Family Gyrostemonaceae Gyrostemonaceaeis a family of plants in the order Brassicales. It comprises 6 genera, totalling about 18 species. All are endemic to temperate parts of Australia. They are shrubs or small trees with small, often narrow leaves, and small flowers. They are wind-pollinated.
2.9- Family Koeberliniaceae Koeberliniaceaeis a family of plants in the orderBrassicales. It comprises 1 genus: Koeberlinia. Koeberlinia spinosais a species of flowering plant native to the southwestern United States and northern Mexico known by several common names, including Crown of Thorns, Allthorn, and Crucifixion Thorn. It is the sole species of the monotypic genus Koeberlinia, which is sometimes considered to be the only genus in the plant family Koeberliniaceae.
2.10- Family Limnanthaceae TheLimnanthaceaeare a small family of annual herbs occurring throughout temperate North America. There are eight species and nineteen taxa currently recognized. Members of this family are prominent in vernal pool communities of California. Some taxa have been domesticated for use as an oil seed crop. Some members are listed as threatened or endangered and have been the focus of disputes over development plans (e.g.Limnanthes floccosasubsp.californica, Limnanthes vinculans) The Limnanthaceae are members of a recently identified clade (Brassicales) of mustard oil producing plants. They have a sharp flavor similar to mustard greens, radish or capers. Two genera are recognized in the family.
2.12- Family Pentadiplandraceae Pentadiplandraceaeis a family of plants in the orderBrassicales. It comprises 1 genus: Pentadiplandra. Pentadiplandra brazzeanais the sole species in the plant genusPentadiplandra, which is placed alone in familyPentadiplandraceae. The plant was rediscovered in 1985 by Marcel and Anette Hladik, both working at the Paris National Nature Museum, who were studying the eating habits of apes in Gabon. They published their findings in science magazines, which started global interest in research on the sweet secret of Pentadiplandra brazzeana berry fruit. The plant grows inAngola, theDemocratic Republic of the Congo, theCentral African Republic, theRepublic of the Congo,Cameroon,GabonandNigeria. Two highly sweet-tasting proteins were discovered from the fruit, pentadin (in 1989) and brazzein (in 1994).
2.14- Family Salvadoraceae Salvadoraceaeis a family in the plant order Brassicales, comprising 3 genera totalling around 12 species. They occur inAfrica, including Madagascar;South East Asia; and have also been found onJava, suggesting they are probably found in much ofMalesia. They are often found in hot, dry areas. Salvadoraceae were previously placed in order Celestrales, but are now placed in Brassicales. Genera: Azima, Dobera and Salvadora
2.15- Family Setchellanthaceae Setchellanthaceaeis a family of plants in the orderBrassicales. It comprises 1 genus:Setchellanthus. Setchellanthus caeruleusis a species of pungent shrub with large blue flowers. It is placed alone in genus Setchellanthus, which is in turn placed alone in family Setchellanthaceae. It is endemic to Mexico.
2.16- Family Tovariaceae Tovariaceaeis a family of plants in the orderBrassicales. It comprises 1 genus:Tovaria. Tovariais a genus of herbs native to Jamaica and South America. There are two species, T. pendulaand T. diffusa. The genus is the only one in the family Tovariaceae.
2.17- Family Tropaeolaceae Tropaeolaceaeis a family of plants in the orderBrassicales. It comprises 1 genus:Tropaeolum. Tropaeolum,commonly known as nasturtium;literally "nose-twister" or "nose-tweaker"), is a genus of roughly 80 species ofannualandperennialherbaceousflowering plants. It was named byCarl Linnaeus and is the only genus in thefamilyTropaeolaceae. The nasturtiums received their common name because they produce an oil that is similar to that of watercress(Nasturtium officinale). The genusTropaeolum,nativeto South and Central America, includes several very popular garden plants, the most commonly grown beingT. majus,T. peregrinumandT. speciosum. One of the hardiest species isT. polyphyllumfromChile, the perennial roots of which can survive the winter underground at altitudes of 3,300 metres (10,000 ft). Plants in this genus have showy, often intensely bright flowers, and rounded, peltate (shield-shaped) leaves with the petiole in the centre. The flowers are bisexual and zygomorphic, with five petals, a superior three-carpelled ovary, and a funnel-shaped nectar spur at the back, formed by modification of one of the five sepals.