Edited by Ho Dinh Hai Long An - Vietnam Updated: 04/08/2015
1- Introduction to the Order Fabales
1.1- Overview The APG III system(Angiosperm Phylogeny Group III system - 2009) of flowering plant classification is the third version of a modern, mostly molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy. In the APG III system, Fabales, order of dicotyledonous flowering plants in the Rosid I group among the core eudicots. The order comprises 4 families (Fabaceae, Polygalaceae, Quillajaceae, and Surianaceae), 754 genera, and more than 20,000 species. However, more than 95 percent of the genera and species belong to Fabaceae, the legume family. Fabaceae is the third largest family of angiosperms, exceeded only by Asteraceae (aster or sunflower family) and Orchidaceae (orchid family). Along with Poaceae (the grass family), Fabaceae is the most important plant family in the production of food for humans and livestock, as well as in the production of industrial products. Synonyms Caesalpiniales Martius Cassiales Link Mimosales Link Polygalales Berchtold & J. Presl Quillajales Doweld Surianales Doweld
2.1- Family Fabaceae (legumes) + Overview TheFabaceaeorLeguminosae,commonly known as thelegume,pea, orbean family, are a large and economically importantfamilyoff lowering plants. It includestrees,shrubs, and perennialorannualherbaceous plants, which are easily recognized by theirfruit(legume) and their compound,stipulatedleaves. Fabaceae, which is the third largest family among the angiosperms after Orchidaceae (orchidfamily) and Asteraceae(aster family), consists of about 730 genera and about 20,000 species of trees, shrubs, vines, and herbs and is worldwide in distribution. The group of legume speciesis widely distributed and is the third-largestland plantfamily in terms of number of species, behind only the OrchidaceaeandAsteraceae, with 630 genera and over 18,860 species.The five largest of the 630 legume genera areAstragalus(over 2,000 species),Acacia(over 1000 species),Indigofera(around 700 species),Crotalaria(around 700 species), andMimosa(around 500 species), which constitute about a quarter of all legume species. About 18,000legume speciesare known, amounting to about 7% of flowering plant species.Fabaceae is the most common family found in tropical rainforests and in dry forests in theAmericasandAfrica. Recent molecular and morphological evidence supports the fact that the Fabaceae is a single monophyleticfamily.This point of view has been supported not only by the degree of interrelation shown by different groups within the family compared with that found among the Leguminosae and their closest relations, but also by all the recentphylogenetic studiesbased onDNA sequences.These studies confirm that the Leguminosae are a monophyletic group that is closely related with thePolygalaceae,Surianaceae andQuillajaceaefamilies and that they belong to the orderFabales. Along with thecereals, somefruitsand tropical roots a number of Leguminosae have been a staple human food for millennia and their use is closely related tohuman evolution. A number are important agricultural and food plants, including Glycine max (soybean), Phaseolus (beans), Pisum sativum (pea), Cicer arietinum (chickpeas), Medicago sativa (alfalfa), Arachis hypogaea (peanut), Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea), Ceratonia siliqua (carob), and Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice). A number of species are also weedy pests in different parts of the world, including: Cytisus scoparius (broom), Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust),Ulex europaeus(gorse), Pueraria lobata (kudzu), and a number of Lupinus species.
2.3- Family Quillajaceae + Overview Fabales, order of dicotyledonous flowering plants in the Rosid I group among the core eudicots. The order comprises 4 families (Fabaceae, Polygalaceae, Quillajaceae, and Surianaceae), 754 genera, and more than 20,000 species. The Family Quillajaceae are vegetatively rather undistinguished with their spiral, serrate, stipulate leaves, although the conspicuous but rather distant teeth appear to be hydathodal. They may be readily recognised by their distinctive widely-open flowers in which the antesepalous stamens are borne on the outer edge of the conspicuous yellow disc some way up the sepals and the antepetalous stamens are borne inside the nectary near the base of the ovary. The petals are clawed and the strongly lobed fruits open down both the inner and outer surfaces of the lobes and contain winged seeds. + Taxonomy - Depending on the National Genetic Resources Program (NGRP) of the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) Agricultural Research Service (ARS). InGRIN Taxonomy for Plants the family Quillajaceae has only one genus: Quillaja. The genus has only one species: Quillaja saponaria. Family: Quillajaceae Genus: Quillaja Species: Quillaja saponaria Source: Quillajaceae http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?mode=... - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia the family Quillajaceaehas one genera: Quillaja. Quillajais a genus offlowering plants, the only genus in the familyQuillajaceae. It was once thought to be in therosefamily,Rosaceae,but recent research shows it belongs in its own family: . The inner bark of the soap bark tree (Quillaja saponaria) containssaponin, which is a natural soap. Members of this genus aretreesthat grow to about 25 metres (82 ft). Species Quillaja brasiliensis(A.St.-Hil. & Tul.) Mart Quillaja lanceolataD.Dietr. Quillaja lancifoliaD.Don Quillaja molinaeDC. Quillaja petiolarisD.Don Quillaja poeppigiiWalp. Quillaja saponariaMolina - Soap bark tree Quillaja sellowianaWalp. Quillaja smegmadermosDC. Important Species Quillaja brasiliensis(A.St.-Hil. & Tul.) Mart Quillaja saponariaMolina - Soap bark tree Source: Quillaja https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quillaja .