Edited by Ho Dinh Hai Long An - Vietnam Updated: 28/4/2015
1- Introduction to the Subfamily Bromelioideae
1.1- Overview Bromelioideaeis a subfamily of the bromeliads (Bromeliaceae). This subfamily is the most diverse containing the greatest number of genera (but the least number of species). This subfamily has the greatest number of generawith 32, but the least number ofspecies with 861. Most of the plants in this group are epiphytes, though some have evolved in, or will adapt to, terrestrial conditions. This subfamily features the most plant types which are commonly cultivated by people, including thepineapple. 1.2- Description Most species in this subfamily are epiphytic and characterized by a rosette-like form many forming a water holding tank. They generally have spiny leaves and berry like fruits containing wet seeds which are often distributed by birds and animals who consume the fruits. The foliage in most Bromelioids grow to form a rosette where water is caught and stored. Their leaves are usually spined and they produce berry-like fruits in their blooms. These plants contain an inferior ovary.
2- Classification of the Subfamily Bromelioideae
2.1- Genera Bromelioideae(32 genera, 861 species) The 32 genera are:
2.2- Genera that have edible fruits 2.2.1- Genus Ananas + Overview Ananasis a plant genus of the Bromeliad family (Bromeliaceae), native toSouth Americaand Central Americawhich includes the species Ananas comosus, thepineapple. This genus originated inMesoamericaand was brought to theCaribbeanIslands by theCarib natives. The oldest register with the representation of the fruit seems to be included in theCascajal Block, attributed to theOlmec civilization. In 1493,Christopher Columbusfirst saw plants of this genus inGuadeloupe. It was brought from Brazil to Europe by thePortuguese, and from there was distributed to the Pacific Islands by the Spanish and the English. Commercial pineapple plantations were established inHawaii, the Philippines,Southeast Asia,FloridaandCuba. The pineapple has become one of the world's most popular fruits. The toughleavesgrow in largerosettes, arising basally from a crown. These leaves are long and lanceolate with a serrate or thorny margin. The flowers, arising from the heart of the rosette, each have their ownsepals. They grow into a compact head on a short, robust stalk. The sepals become fleshy and juicy and develop into the well-known complex form of thepseudocarpfruit, crowned by a rosette of leaves. Ananasspecies are used as food plants by the larvaeof someLepidopteraspecies including Batrachedra comosae, which feeds exclusively onA. comosus. The wordAnanasis derived from theGuaraniname for the pineapple, viaPortuguese. In most languages, pineapple is called "ananas". + Species 1- Ananas ananassoides(Baker)L.B. Smith- from Costa Rica to Paraguay 2- Ananas bracteatus(Lindley) Schultes & Schultes f.- Brazil, Bolivia, Argentina, Paraguay, Ecuador 3- Ananas comosus(Linnaeus) Merrill- Pineapple - Brazil and Paraguay; naturalized in parts of Asia, Africa, Australia, Mexico, Central America, the West Indies, northern South America, and various islands in the Pacific 4- Ananas erectifoliusL.B.Sm.- Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, northern Brazil, French Guiana. 5- Ananas lucidus(Aiton) Schult. & Schult.f- Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, northern Brazil, French Guiana. 6- Ananas macrodontesE.Morren- Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador, Paraguay, northern Argentina. 7- Ananas parguazensisCamargo &L.B. Smith- Colombia, Venezuela, northern Brazil, Guyana, French Guiana. Only one bromeliad, the pineapple (Ananas comosus), is a commercially important food crop.