1.2- Overview Pisumis a genus of the familyFabaceae, native to southwestAsiaand northeastAfrica. It contains one to five species, depending on taxonomic interpretation. The pea is most commonly the small spherical seed or the seed-pod of the pod fruitPisum sativum. Each pod contains several peas. Pea pods are botanically fruit, since they contain seeds and developed from the ovary of a (pea) flower. The name is also used to describe other edible seeds from the Fabaceae such as the pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), the cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), and the seeds from several species of Lathyrus. Pisum sativum(the field or garden pea), is domesticated and is a major human food crop, see Pea and Split Pea.
1.3- Taxonomy The Genus Pisum L. contains one to five species, depending on taxonomic interpretation; the International Legume Database (ILDIS) accepts three species, one with two subspecies: 1- Species Pisum abyssinicum (syn.Pisum sativum subsp. abyssinicum) 2- Species Pisum fulvum 3- Species Pisum sativum - pea - Pisum sativum subsp. elatius (syn. Pisum elatius, Pisum syriacum) - Pisum sativum subsp. sativum Pisum sativum (the field or garden pea), is domesticated and is a major human food crop, see Pea and Split Pea. Source: Pisum - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
2- Species of the Genus Pisum
2.1- Species Pisum abyssinicum + Overview Species Pisum abyssinicum(syn.Pisum sativumsubsp. abyssinicum or Pisum sativum var. abyssinicum) is aLegume described byAlexander Karl Heinrich Braun. Pisum abyssinicumincluded in the genus PisumL. of the Legume Family (Fabaceae). + Subdivision No subspecies are listed in the Catalogue ofLife.
2.2- Species Pisum fulvum + Overview Pisum fulvumis a species of the Genus PisumL. in the Tribe Fabeae of the Legume Family (Fabaceae). English name: Wild pea Synonyms: Pisum fulvumvar.amphicarpum Warb. & Eig. + Subdivision No subspecies are listed in the Catalogue ofLife.
2.3- Species Pisum sativum - Common pea, Garden pea, Field pea + Overview Pisum sativum, the common pea (also known as the garden or field pea), is an herbaceous annual in the Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae) family, originally from the Mediterraean basin and Near East, but now widely grown for its seedpod or legume (a simple dry fruit containing several seeds and splitting along seams on two sides). The term “pea” can refer to small spherical seed or to the pod. The name “peas” is also used to describe other edible seeds from the Fabaceae, such as chickpeas (Cicer arietinum), pigeon peas (Cajanus cajan), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), and sweet peas (severalLathyrusspp.), which are grown as ornamentals. The wild pea is restricted to the Mediterranean basin and the Near East. The earliest archaeological finds of peas date from the late neolithic era of current Greece, Syria, Turkey and Jordan. In Egypt, early finds date from ca. 4800-4400 BC in the Nile delta area, and from ca. 3800-3600 BC in Upper Egypt. The pea was also present in Georgia in the 5th millennium BC. Farther east, the finds are younger. Peas were present in Afghanistanca. 2000 BC, in Harappa, Pakistan, and in northwest India in 2250-1750 BC. In the second half of the 2nd millennium BC, this pulse crop appears in the Gangetic basin and southern India. Pisum sativum is an annual plant, with a life cycle of one year. It is a cool season crop grown in many parts of the world; planting can take place from winter to early summer depending on location. The average pea weighs between 0.1 and 0.36 grams. The immature peas (and in snow peas the tender pod as well) are used as a vegetable, fresh, frozen or canned; varieties of the species typically called field peas are grown to produce dry peas like the split pea shelled from the matured pod. These are the basis of pease porridge and pea soup, staples of medieval cuisine; in Europe, consuming fresh immature green peas was an innovation of Early Modern cuisine.
+ Varieties and Cultivars Many Varieties and cultivars are available ranging from early - to late-maturing and from leafy to leafless. In temperate areas most are for spring sowing but some winterhardy cultivars for sowing with winter cereals have been developed too. Certain cultivars bred for harvesting as grain peas for human or animal consumption are also suitable for sowing pure or in mixture with cereals for arable silage. Some typical cultivars used in Europe are Magnus, Setchey, Solara, Sponsor, Athos, Baccara, Nitoche, Rif and Gracia. Some other examples are Trapper and Austria (Canada) and Mega (New Zealand). Some of the most common varieties and cultivars are listed here: 1- Alaska, 55 days (smooth seeded) 2- Tom Thumb / Half Pint, 55 days (heirloom, extra dwarf) 3- Thomas Laxton (heirloom) / Laxton's Progress / Progress #9, 60-65 days 4- Mr. Big, 60 days, 2000 AAS winner 5- Little Marvel, 63 days, 1934 AAS winner 6- Early Perfection, 65 days 7- Kelvedon Wonder, 65 days, 1997 RHS AGM winner 8- Sabre, 65 days, PMR 9- Homesteader / Lincoln, 67 days (heirloom, known as Greenfeast in Australia and New Zealand) 10- Miragreen, 68 days (semi-tall climber) 11- Serge, 68 days, PMR, afila 12- Wando, 68 days 13- Green Arrow, 70 days 14- Recruit, 70 days, PMR, afila 15- Tall Telephone / Alderman, 75 days (heirloom, tall climber) 16- Other variations of Pisum sativum include: - Pisum sativum var. macrocarpon is commonly known as the snow pea. - Pisum sativum var. macrocarpon ser. cv. is known as the sugar or snap pea. Both of these are eaten whole before the pod reaches maturity and are hence also known as mange-tout, French for "eat all". The snow pea pod is eaten flat, while in sugar/snap peas, the pod becomes cylindrical, but is eaten while still crisp, before the seeds inside develop.