Edited by Ho Dinh Hai Long An - Vietnam Updated: 14/5/2015
1- Introduction to the Subfamily Panicoideae
1.1- Overview Panicoideae is the second-largest subfamily of the of the true grassfamily with over 3,500 species, mainly distributed in warm temperate and tropical regions. It comprises some important agricultural crops, including sugarcane, maize (or corn), sorghum, and switchgrass. It probably constitutes two well-distinct lineages, the Andropogonodae and the Panicodae, which are further subdivided into tribes and subtribes. Three important agricultural species belong to this group: sugar cane, maize (also known as corn), and sorghum. The subfamily is a member of the PACMAD clade of grasses, the evolutionary group in which C4 photosyntesis independently evolved a number of times. C4 photosynthesis evolved independently a number of times in the subfamily, which presumably had a C3 ancestor. 1.2- Tribes and genera of the Subfamily Panicoideae * Group 1: Panicodae + Tribe Isachneae (including 7 genera) + TribeNeurachneae (including 3 genera) + Tribe Arundinelleae (including 14 genera) + Tribe Paniceae (including 122 genera) * Group 2: Andropogonea + Tribe Andropogonea - Subtribe Andropogoninae (including 77 genera) Important genera: Saccharum (36 species) Sorghum - Subtribe Rottboelliinae (including 26 genera) + Tribe Maydeae (including 8 Genera) Important genera: Coix Zea.