1.2- Characteristics + Description Typhaleaves are alternate and mostly basal on a simple, jointless stem that bears the flowering spikes. The plants aremonoecious, withunisexual flowers that develop in denseracemes. The numerous male flowers form a narrow spike at the top of the vertical stem. Each male (staminate) flower is reduced to a pair ofstamensand hairs, and withers once thepollenis shed. Large numbers of tiny female flowers form a dense, sausage-shaped spike on the stem below the male spike. In larger species this can be up to 30 centimetres (12 in) long and 1 to 4 centimetres (0.39 to 1.57 in) thick. The seeds are minute, 0.2 millimetres (0.0079 in) long, and attached to fine hairs. When ripe, the heads disintegrate into a cottony fluff from which the seedsdisperse by wind. + General ecology Typhaare often among the first wetland plants to colonize areas of newly exposed wet mud, with their abundant wind dispersed seeds. Buried seeds can survive in the soil for long periods of time.Theygerminatebest with sunlight and fluctuating temperatures, which is typical of many wetland plants that regenerate on mud flats.The plants also spread by rhizomes, forming large, interconnected stands. Typhaare considered to be dominant competitors in wetlands in many areas, and they often exclude other plants with their dense canopy.In the bays of theGreat Lakes, for example, they are among the most abundant wetland plants. Different species of cattails are adapted to different water depths. Well-developedaerenchymamake the plants tolerant of submersion. Even the dead stalks are capable of transmitting oxygen to the rooting zone. AlthoughTyphaare native wetland plants, they can be aggressive in their competition with other native species.They have been problematic in many regions in North America, from the Great Lakes to theEverglades.Native sedges are displaced and wet meadows shrink, likely as a response to altered hydrology of the wetlands and increased nutrient levels. An introducedor hybrid species may be contributing to the problem.Control is difficult. The most successful strategy appears to be mowing or burning to remove the aerenchymous stalks, followed by prolonged flooding.It may be more important to prevent invasion by preserving water level fluctuations, including periods of drought, and to maintain infertile conditions. Typhaare frequently eaten by wetland mammals such as muskrats, which may also use them to construct feeding platforms and dens. Birds use the seed hairs as nest lining.
2.2- Important species that can be used as vegetables 1- Species Typha latifolia - common cattail - very widespread The most widespread species isTypha latifolia, which is distributed across the entire temperate northern hemisphere. It has also been introduced to Australia. 2- Species Typha angustifolia - lesser bulrush, narrow leaf cattail (America), orjambu (India) Species Typha angustifoliais nearly as widespread, but does not extend as far north; it may be introduced andinvasive inNorth America. 3- Species Typha domingensis - bulrush, southern cattail (America), narrow-leaved cumbungi (Australia). Species Typha domingensishas a more southern Americandistribution, and it occurs in Australia. 4- Species Typha orientalis - East Asia, Australia, New Zealand Species Typha orientalisis widespread in Asia, Australia, and New Zealand. Source: Typha- From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Typha
3- The Four Important species that can be used as vegetables
+ Characteristics Typha latifolia(bulrush, common bulrush, broadleaf cattail, common cattail, great reedmace, cooper's reed, cumbungi) is a perennialherbaceous plant in the genusTypha. It is found as a native plant species in North and South America, Europe, Eurasia, and Africa. In Canada, broadleaf cattail occurs in all provinces and also in the Yukon and Northwest Territories, and in the United States, it is native to all states except Hawaii. It is an introduced and invasive species, and considered a noxious weed, in Australia and Hawaii. It is not native but has been reported in Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and the Philippines. Typha latifoliahas been found in a variety of climates, including tropical, subtropical, southern and northern temperate, humid coastal, and dry continental. It is found at elevations from sea level to 2,300 m (7,500 feet). Typha latifoliais an "obligate wetland" species, meaning that it is always found in or near water. The species generally grows in flooded areas where the water depth does not exceed 0.8 meters (2.6 feet). However, it has also been reported growing in floating mats in slightly deeper water. Typha latifolia grows mostly in fresh water but also occurs in slightly brackish marshes. The species can displace other species native to salt marshes upon reduction in salinity. Under such conditions the plant may be considered invasive, since it interferes with preservation of the salt marsh habitat. Typha latifolia shares its range with other related species, and hybridizes with Typha angustifolia, narrow-leaf cattail, to form Typha × glauca (Typha angustifolia × Typha latifolia), white cattail. Common cattail is usually found in shallower water than narrow-leaf cattail. The plant is 1.5 to 3 metres (5 to 10 feet) high and it has 2-4 cm (¾ to 1½ inch) broad leaves, and will generally grow out in to 0.75 to 1 metre (2 to 3 feet) of water depth. Typha latifoliais called totora, espadaña común, tule espidilla, or piriope in Spanish; roseau des étangs in French; tifa or mazzasorda in Italian, and tabua-larga in Portuguese.
+ Uses Traditionally, Typha latifolia has been a part of many native North American cultures, as a source of food, medicine, and for other uses. The rhizomes are edible after cooking and removing the skin, while peeled stems and leaf bases can be eaten raw, or cooked. Young flower spikes are edible as well. Some cultures make use of the roots of Typha latifolia as a poultice for boils, burns, or wounds. The HopiKachinas give the plant to children with toys attached, such as bows and dolls during the Home Dance. WhileTypha latifoliagrows all over, including in rural areas, it is not advisable to eat specimens deriving from polluted wateras it absorbs pollutants and in fact is used as abioremediator. Specimens with a very bitter or spicy taste should not be eaten. Source: Typha latifolia- From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Typha_latifolia .
+ Characteristics Typha angustifoliaL., (alsolesser bulrush, narrowleaf cattailorlesser reedmace), is a perennialherbaceousplant ofgenusTypha. This cattail is an "obligate wetland" species that is commonly found in the northern hemisphere in brackish locations.The plant's leaves are flat, very narrow (¼"-½" wide), and 3'-6' tall when mature; 12-16 leaves arise from each vegetative shoot. At maturity, they have distinctive stalks that are about as tall as the leaves; the stalks are topped with brown, fluffy, sausage-shaped flowering heads. The plants have sturdy, rhizomatousroots that can extend 27" and are typically ¾"-1½" in diameter. It has been proposed that the species was introduced from Europe to North America.In North America, it is also thought to have been introduced from coastal to inland locations. The geographic range of Typha angustifolia overlaps with the very similar species Typha latifolia (broadleaf or common cattail). T. angustifolia can be distinguished from T. latifoliaby its narrower leaves and by a clear separation of two different regions (staminate flowers above and pistilate flowers below) on the flowering heads. The species hybridize as Typha x glauca (Typha angustifolia x Typha latifolia) (white cattail); Typha x glauca is not a distinct species, but is rather a sterile F1 hybrid. Broadleaf cattail is usually found in shallower water than narrowleaf cattail.
+ Culinary use Several parts of the plant are edible, including during various seasons the dormant sprouts on roots and bases of leaves, the inner core of the stalk, green bloom spikes, ripe pollen, and starchy roots. The edible stem is calledbồn bồnin Vietnam. Source: Typha angustifolia- From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Typha_angustifolia.
+ Characteristics Typha domingensis, known commonly assouthern cattailorcumbungi, is aperennialherbaceousplant of thegenusTypha. It is found throughouttemperateandtropicalregions worldwide. It is sometimes found as a subdominant associate inmangrove ecosystemssuch as the Petenes mangroves ecoregion ofYucatán. + Uses InTurkishfolk medicinethe femaleinflorescencesof this plant and otherTyphaare used externally to treat wounds such as burns. Extracts ofTypha domingensishave been demonstrated to have wound healing properties in rat models. Recently it was found that Typha domingensis is very effective at reducing bacterial contamination of water for agricultural use. This plant helps to reduce, up to 98 percent, pollution by enterobacteria (usually found in the intestines of mammals) involved in the development of disease. Source: Typha domingensis- From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Typha_domingensis.