2.2- Family Costaceae + Overview Costaceaeor theCostusFamily is a family of pantropicalmonocots. They belong to the order Zingiberales, which contains other horticulturally and economically important plants such as the banana(Musaceae),bird-of-paradise (Strelitziaceae), and edibleginger(Zingiberaceae). Costaceae are unique from other members of Zingiberales in that its species have 5 fused staminodes, rather than 2, and Costaceae contain no aromatic oils. The fused infertilestamenform a large petalloidlabellumthat often functions to attract pollinators. Theflowersare generally solitary or aggregated in inflorescences. Inflorescences are arranged in a terminal head or spike, except forMonocostus. The simpleleavesare entire and spirally arranged, with those toward base of the stem usually bladeless. Leaf bases have a closed sheath with a ligule, or projection at the top of the sheath.Fruitis aberryor capsule. Therhizomeis fleshy withtuberousroots. + Classification - Genera Monocostus Dimerocostus Chamaecostus Costus Hellenia Paracostus Tapeinochilos - Species The seven genera contain about 100 species (1 in Monocostus, 2 in Dimerocostus, 16 in Tapeinochilos, 2 in Paracostus, ca. 8 in Chamaecostus, ca. 4 in Cheilocostus, ca. 80 in Costus) and are found in tropical climates of Asia, Africa, and Central/South America.
2.3- Family Heliconiaceae + Overview Heliconiaceae is the Family of Order Zingiberales. This family has one genus: HeliconiaL. TheHeliconiaare amonophyleticgenus in thefamilyHeliconiaceae, but was formerly included in the familyMusaceae, which includes the bananas (e.g., Musa, Ensete; Juddet al., 2007). However, theAPG systemof 1998, and its successor, theAPG II systemof 2003, confirm the Heliconiaceae as distinct and places them in theorderZingiberales, in thecommelinidcladeofmonocots. Heliconia, derived from the Greek word helikonios, is agenus offlowering plantsin the Heliconiaceae. Most of the species are native to the tropicalAmericas, but a few are indigenous to certain islands of the westernPacificand Maluku.Many species ofHeliconiaare found in rainforests or tropical wet forests of these regions. Several species are widely cultivated as ornamentals, and a few are naturalized inFlorida,GambiaandThailand.Common names for the genus include lobster-claws,wild plantainsorfalse bird-of-paradise. The last term refers to their close similarity to the bird-of-paradise flowers (Strelitzia). Collectively, these plants are also simply referred to asheliconias. Heliconias are grown for the florist's trade and as landscape plants. These plants do not grow well in cold, dry conditions. They are very drought intolerant, but can endure some soil flooding. Heliconias need an abundance of water, sunlight, and soils that are rich in humus in order to grow well. These flowers are grown in tropical regions all over the world as ornamental plants (Ong, 2007). The flower ofH. psittacorum(Parrot Heliconia) is especially distinctive, its greenish-yellow flowers with black spots and redbractsreminding of the brightplumageofparrots. + Species and cultivars - Species Most commonly grown landscapeHeliconiaspecies includeHeliconia augusta, H. bihai, H. brasiliensis, H. caribaea, H. latispatha, H. pendula, H. psittacorum, H. rostrata, H. schiediana,andH. wagneriana. - Cultivars Severalcultivarsandhybridshave been selected for garden planting, including: H. psittacorum×H. spathocircinata, both species ofSouth America, mainlyBrazil. H. × rauliniana=H. marginata(Venezuela) ×H. bihai(Brazil). H. chartaceacv. 'Sexy Pink'.
2.4- Family Lowiaceae + Overview Lowiaceae is the Family of Order Zingiberales. This family has one genus: Orchidantha. Orchidanthais agenusofflowering plants. In the APG III system, it is placed in thefamilyLowiaceae,as the sole genus.It includes the plants in the formerly recognised generaLowiaand Protamomum. Orchidantharemains a poorly known genus, found from southernChinatoBorneo. Orchidanthameans "orchid-flower", as one of thepetalson the flowersis modified into a labellum, like the flowers oforchids.One species,Orchidantha inoueiof Borneo, imitates the smell of dung in order to attract smallOnthophagusdung beetlesas pollinators. + Species As of August 2013, theWorld Checklist of Selected Plant Familiesaccepted 17 species: 1- Orchidantha borneensisN.E.Br.- Borneo 2- Orchidantha chinensisT.L.Wu- Guangdong,Guangxi 3- Orchidantha fimbriataHolttum- Pen. Malaysia 4- Orchidantha foetidaJenjitt. & K.Larsen - Thailand 5- Orchidantha grandifloraMood & L.B.Pedersen- Sabah 6- Orchidantha holttumiiK.Larsen- Sabah,Brunei 7- Orchidantha inoueiNagam. & S.Sakai-Sarawak 8- Orchidantha insularisT.L.Wu- Hainan 9- Orchidantha laoticaK.Larsen- Laos 10- Orchidantha longiflora(Scort.) Ridl.-Pen. Malaysia 11- Orchidantha maxillarioides(Ridl.) K.Schum.- Pahang 12- Orchidantha quadricolorL.B.Pedersen & A.L.Lamb-Sabah 13- Orchidantha sabahensisA.L.Lamb & L.B.Pedersen- Sabah 14- Orchidantha siamensisK.Larsen -Pen. Malaysia, S Thailand 15- Orchidantha stercoreaH.Ð.Trần & Škorničk. - Vietnam 16- Orchidantha suratiiL.B.Pedersen -Sabah 17- Orchidantha vietnamica K.Larsen - Vietnam
2.5- Family Marantaceae + Overview TheMarantaceaeare afamily, thearrowroot family, offlowering plantsknown for its large starchyrhizomes. It is sometimes called theprayer-plant family. Combined morphologicalandDNAphylogeneticanalyses indicate the family originated inAfrica, although this is not the center of itsextantdiversity. The plants usually have underground rhizomes or tubers. Theleavesare arranged in two rows with thepetioleshaving a sheathing base. Theleafblade is narrow or broad withpinnateveins running parallel to the midrib. Thepetiolemay be winged, and swollen into apulvinusat the base. The inflorescenceis a spike orpanicle, enclosed byspathe-likebracts. The flowers are small and often inconspicuous, irregular, andbisexual, usually with an outer three freesepalsand an inner series of three petaloid-like segments, tube-like in appearance. The fruit is either fleshy or a loculicidalcapsule. + Taxonomy TheAPG II system, of 2003 (unchanged from the APG system, 1998), also recognizes this family, and assigns it to the orderZingiberalesin the clade commelinidsin themonocots. The Marantaceae are considered the most evolved family in this group due to the extreme reduction in both stamens and carpels. The family consists of 29-31 genera with 627 species, found in the tropical areas of the world except in Australia. The biggest concentration is in the Americas, with seven genera in Africa, and six in Asia. Genera:
2.6- Family Musaceae + Overview TheMusaceaeare afamilyofflowering plants, placed in theorderZingiberales. The family is native to the tropics of Africa and Asia. The plants have a large herbaceous growth habit with leaves with overlapping basal sheaths that form a pseudostem making some members appear to bewoodytrees. As currently circumscribed the family includes either two or threegenera(depending upon acceptance of the genusMusella, see below). All of the genera and species are native to theOld World. The largest and most economically important genus in the family isMusa, famous for thebananaandplantain. + Genera In most treatments, the family has twogenera, MusaandEnsete. Cultivatedbananasare commercially important members of the family. - Genus Musa Musais one of two or threegenerain the family Musaceae; it includesbananasandplantains. Around 70speciesofMusaare known, with a broad variety of uses. Taxonomy: For a more detailed explanation of this system and a list of some edible banana and plantain cultivars using it, see theList of banana cultivars. - Genus Ensete Enseteis agenusofmonocarpicflowering plantsnativeto tropical regions of Africa and Asia. It is one of the two genera in thebananafamily, Musaceae, and includes the false banana or enset (E. ventricosum), an economically important food crop in Ethiopia. Taxonomy: It is possible to separateEnseteinto its African and Asian species. - African Species Ensete gilletii Ensete homblei Ensete perrieri- endemic toMadagascarbut intriguingly like the AsianE. glaucum Ensete ventricosum- enset or false banana, widely cultivated as a food plant in Ethiopia - Asian Species Ensete glaucum- widespread in Asia from India to Papua New Guinea Ensete lasiocarpum(Franch.) Cheesman - China, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar (Burma) Ensete superbum- Western Ghats of India Ensete wilsonii-Yunnan, China, but doubtfully distinct fromE. glaucum Ensetesp. "Thailand" - possibly a new species or a disjunct population ofE. superbum