1.2- Subfamily Allioideae + Overview Allioideae is a subfamily of monocotflowering plants in the family Amaryllidaceae, orderAsparagales. It was formerly treated as a separate family, Alliaceae. The subfamily name is derived from the generic name of the typegenus, Allium. It is composed of approximately eighteen genera. The subfamily contains both well known garden plants, but also weeds, such as Nothoscordum. + Tribes of the Subfamily Allioideae Subfamily Allioideae is divided into four tribes: Allieae, Tulbaghieae, Gilliesieae and Leucocoryneae. 1- Tribe Allieae Tribe Allieae has one genus and over 500 species. Genus Allium L. (includes Milula Prain) 2- Tribe Gilliesieae Tribe Gilliesieae originated in South America. Tribe Gilliesieae has nine genera. 3- Tribe Leucocoryneae Tribe Leucoconeae originated in South America with the exception of two species of Nothoscordum. Tribe Leucoconeae has six genera and 42 species. 4- Tribe Tulbaghieae Tribe Tulbaghieae originated in South America. Tribe Tulbaghieae has two genera with about 25 species.
2- Taxonomy of the Subfamily Allioideae
2.1- Traditional System In the early twentieth century there were doubts expressed about the placement of the alliaceous genera within Liliaceae, based solely on the position of the ovary. Lotsy was the first taxonomist to propose separating them, and in his system he describes Alliaceae and Gilliesiaceae as new and separate families from Liliaceae (1911). This approach was later adopted by a number of other authorities, such as Dahlgren (1985) and Rahn (1998). In 1985, Dahlgren, Clifford, and Yeo continuing the work of Huber but with a more cladistic approach, defined the Alliaceae to include all of the genera that are now included in Allioideae (30 genera, 720 species), plus Agapanthus and a group of genera that are now placed in Themidaceae, or its equivalent, the subfamily Brodiaeoideae of Asparagaceae. They divided Alliaceae into three subfamilies: Agapanthoideae, Allioideae, and Gilliesioideae.
2.2- Phylogenetic analyses Successive revisions of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) classification have changed the circumscription of the family. In the 1998 version, Alliaceae were a distinct family; in the 2003 version, combining the Alliaceae with the Agapanthaceae and the Amaryllidaceae sensu stricto was recommended but optional; in the 2009 version, only the broad circumscription of the Amaryllidaceae is allowed, with the Alliaceae reduced to a subfamily, Allioideae. In the APG II system of 2003, Alliaceae could be recognized sensu stricto or sensu lato, as mentioned above. Soon after the publication of APG II, the ICBNconserved the name Amaryllidaceae for the family that had been called Alliaceae sensu lato in APG II. When the APG III system was published in 2009, the alternative circumscriptions were discontinued and Alliaceae was no longer recognized. Alliaceae sensu stricto became the subfamily Allioideae of Amaryllidaceae sensu lato. Some botanists have not strictly followed the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group and have recognized the smaller version of Alliaceae at family rank. Quite a few of the plants that were once included in family Alliaceae have been assigned to the subfamily Brodiaeoideae (rather than the subfamily Allioideae).
2.3- Subdivision of the Subfamily Allioideae Subfamily Allioideae is divided into four tribes: Allieae, Tulbaghieae, Gilliesieae and Leucocoryneae. The first three correspond to the three subfamilies under the older Alliaceae family (Alliodiae, Tulbaghioideae and Gilliesioideae). Leucocoryneae was added in 2014 by dividing Gilliesieae into two separate tribes, corresponding to the original tribes within Gilliesioideae, elevating Iphiae nom. nud. to tribe Leucocoryneae.
3- Tribe Leucocoryneae + Overview Characterised by simple or prolific bulbs, sometimes with lateral rhizomes. Leaf sheaths long, tepals more or less fused and corona absent. Spathe formed from 1-2 bracts. Style more or less gynobasic. Ovary usually has two ovules per locule, side by side. Floral symmetry actinomorphic, septal nectaries present. Tribe Leucoconeae originated in South America with the exception of two species of Nothoscordum. + Genera Tribe Leucoconeae has six genera: 1- Genus Beauverdia Herter 2- Genus Ipheion Rafinesque 3- Genus Leucocoryne Lindl. 4- Genus Nothoscordum Kunth. 5- Genus Tristagma Poepp. 6- Genus Zoellnerallium Crosa (1975). Tribe Leucoconeae has six genera and 42 species.
4- Tribe Tulbaghieae + Overview Characterised by Corm shaped bulb or rhizome. Leaf sheaths short. Flowers possess acorona, pseudocorona or a fleshy perigonal ring. Tribe Tulbaghieae originated in South America. + Genera Tribe Tulbaghieae has two genera: 1- Genus Tulbaghia L. 2- Genus Prototulbaghia Vosa Tribe Tulbaghieae has about 25 species.
2.4- Origin and Distribution + Origin: Allioideae originated in Middle Asia and was domesticated in what are today Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan. It is believed that all of the edible onions and their relatives are native to Asia. + Distribution: Global distribution corresponds to the tribal structure, with the tribe Allieae confined to the Northern hemisphere (North America, North Africa,EuropeandAsia), the tribe Tulbaghieae to South Africa, the tribe Gilliesieae to South America, and the tribe Leucocoryneae to South America with the exception of two species ofNothoscordum(N bivalve,N. gracile) which extend to southern North America.Thus fourteen of the total of 18generaareendemictotemperateSouth America. Some of the species of Allium are important food plants for example onions (Allium cepa), chives (Allium schoenoprasum), garlic (Allium sativum and Allium scordoprasum), and leeks (Allium porrum). Species of Allium, Gilliesia, Ipheion, Leucocoryne, Nothoscordum, and Tulbaghia are cultivated as ornamentals.