1.2- Species Saccharum officinarum L. - Sugarcane or Sugar cane + Overview Saccharum officinarumL., Sugarcane or sugar cane, is a large, strong-growing species of grass in the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, subfamily Panicoideae, family Poaceae, order Poales. It originated in southeast Asia and is now cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries worldwide for the production of sugar and other products. Sugarcane, or sugar cane, is one of the several species of tall perennialtrue grasses of the genus Saccharum, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South Asia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production. It has stout jointed fibrous stalks that are rich in the sugarsucrose, which accumulates in the stalk internodes. + Uses Portions of the stem of this and several other species of sugarcane have been used from ancient times for chewing to extract the sweet juice. It was cultivated in New Guinea about 8000 years ago for this purpose. Extraction of the juice and boiling to concentrate it was probably first done in India more than 2000 years ago. Saccharum officinarum and its hybrids are grown for the production of sugar, ethanol, and other industrial uses in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. The stems and the byproducts of the sugar industry are used for feeding to livestock. Pigs fed on sugarcane juice and a soy-based protein supplement produced stronger piglets that grew faster than those on a more conventional diet. As its specific name (officinarum, "of dispensaries") implies, it is also used in traditional medicine both internally and externally.
2- Characteristics of the Species Saccharum officinarum L. - Sugarcane or Sugar cane
2.1- Description + The plant Saccharum officinarum, a perennial plant, grows in clumps consisting of a number of strong unbranched stems. A network of rhizomes forms under the soil which sends up secondary shoots near the parent plant. Sugarcane is a tropical, perennial grass that forms lateral shoots at the base to produce multiple stems, typically three to four metres high and about five cm in diameter. + The stems The stems vary in colour, being green, pinkish, or purple and can reach 5 m (16 ft) in height. They are jointed, nodes being present at the bases of the alternate leaves. The internodes contain a fibrous white pith immersed in sugary sap. The stems grow into cane stalk, which when mature constitutes approximately 75% of the entire plant. A mature stalk is typically composed of 11-16% fiber, 12-16% soluble sugars, 2-3% non-sugars, and 63-73% water. + The leaves The elongated, linear, green leaves have thick midribs and saw-toothed edges and grow to a length of about 30 to 60 cm (12 to 24 in) and width of 5 cm (2.0 in). + The flowers The terminal inflorescence is a panicle up to 60 cm (24 in) long, a pinkish plume that is broadest at the base and tapering towards the top. The spikelets are borne on side branches and are about 3 mm (0.12 in) long and are concealed in tufts of long, silky hair. Sugarcane harvest typically occurs before the plants flower, as the flowering process causes a reduction in sugar content. + The fruits and seeds The fruits are dry and each one contains a single seed.
2.2- Origin and Distribution + Origin Sugar cane originated in southeast Asia and is now cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries worldwide for the production of sugar and other products. + Distribution In 2012, The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) estimates it was cultivated on about 26.0 million hectares, in more than 90 countries, with a worldwide harvest of 1.83 billion tons. Brazil was the largest producer of sugar cane in the world. The next five major producers, in decreasing amounts of production, were India, China, Thailand, Pakistan and Mexico. Commercially, it is grown in many countries including South Asia, Southeast Asia, Brazil, Latin America and etc.
2.4- Nutrition + Overview Studies have shown that sugarcane juice is high in polyphenols, which are powerful phytonutrients with the qualities of antioxidants. It is also loaded with vitamins and minerals such as calcium, potassium, magnesium, manganese, and iron; along with a complete profile of essential amino-acids that help burn fat and build muscle. Some of these include pipecolic acid, methionine, tryptophan, β-alanine, and arginine; along with basic amino-acids like histidine, lysine, arginine, and tryptophan. + Nutritional value of Sugarcane Juice per 1 oz (28.35 g):
2.5- Health Benefits of Sugar Canes + Introduction Sugar cane is in the grass family and loaded with health benefits. Studies have shown that sugarcane juice is high in polyphenols, which are powerful phytonutrients with the qualities of antioxidants. It is also loaded with vitamins and minerals such as calcium, potassium, magnesium, manganese, and iron; along with a complete profile of essential amino-acids that help burn fat and build muscle. Some of these include pipecolic acid, methionine, tryptophan, β-alanine, and arginine; along with basic amino-acids like histidine, lysine, arginine, and tryptophan. Cane juice is alkaline to the body, and because most diseases cannot live in an alkaline environment, in it's raw form, sugar cane juice can be very healing to the body. It has even been found to lower cholesterol-both LDL and triglycerides.
+ Ten health benefits of sugarcane juice 1. The reason behind sugar cane being a popular drink during summers is because it gives an instant kick of energy and quenches the thirst. Sugar cane juice is good source of glucose which as we know, helps to re-hydrates the human body and gives it a boost of energy. So instead of your artificial energy drink, the next time you feel fatigued or dehydrated, consider drinking a glass of cane juice. 2. Even though cane juice tastes very sweet and has high sugar content, it is good for diabetic patients. It contains natural sugar which has low glycemic index that prevents steep rise in blood glucose levels in diabetics, so it can act as a substitute of aerated drinks for them. However people with Type-2 diabetes should consume it in moderation and after consultation with their doctors. 3. Sugarcane juice is considered an alkaline forming food because of the high concentration of calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, and manganese in it. Diseases like cancer cannot survive in an alkaline environment and that’s why studies show that it is effective in fighting against cancer, especially prostate and breast cancer. 4. As sugar cane juice boosts protein levels in the body, it helps in maintaining the health of the kidney. Taken in a diluted form, with lime juice and coconut water, sugar cane juice helps in reducing the burning sensation which is commonly associated with urinary tract infections, sexually transmitted diseases, kidney stones and prostatitis. 5. The antioxidants in sugarcane juice help to fighting against infections and boost the immunity system of the body. It also protects liver the liver against infections and helps in keeping the bilirubin levels in control. This is the reason that doctors advice drinking sugar cane juice to jaundice patients, as it is one of the few things that get digested without too much pressure on the liver and also helps in reducing the bilirubin levels. 6. Sugar cane juice also acts a good digestive aid due to the presence of potassium. It helps in keeping the digestive system in good shape, prevents stomach infections and is considered to be particularly useful in treating the problem of constipation. 7. Studies show that sugarcane juice protects against tooth decay and bad breath due to its high mineral content. So save yourself the next trip to the dentist and drink a glass of fresh sugarcane juice to get shiny white teeth. 8. As I mentioned in a post regarding effects of nutrients on nails, deficiency of nutrients in the body can easily be noticed by looking at the health and condition of your nails. If you have brittle discolored nails that have white spots on them, then it’s time to add sugar cane juice in your diet. It contains everything to give you those strong shiny nails that would look pretty even without a nail polish. 9. Sugarcane juice has been discovered to be great for those people who are struggling with febrile disorders. Febrile disorders are accountable for resulting in fevers, which can lead to seizures and loss of protein in the body. It is quite common in infants and children. Sugar cane juice helps in compensating the lost protein and helps in recovery. 10. When it comes to healthy skin, alpha hydroxy acids are supposed to have a lot of benefits. They fight acne, reduce blemishes, prevent ageing and help in keeping the skin hydrated. One of the most effective alpha hydroxy acids is glycolic acid and sugarcane, is one of its few natural sources. Just apply sugar cane juice to your skin and let it dry or add it to your favourite face mask and scrub. Use it regularly to see the effect. While the advantages of sugarcane juice are many, it is essential to ensure that it is extracted in a hygienic manner. It’s also important to use and consume the juice as soon it extracted because it tends to get oxidized within 15 minutes. Source: Ten health benefits of sugarcane juice From: http://antiguaobserver.com/ten-health-benefits-of-sugarcane-juice.
3- The Uses of Sugar canes
Sugarcane is a tropical, perennial grass that forms lateral shoots at the base to produce multiple stems, typically three to four meters high and about five centimeters in diameter. The stems grow into cane stalk, which when mature constitutes approximately 75% of the entire plant. A mature stalk is typically composed of 11-16% fiber, 12-16% soluble sugars, 2-3% non-sugars, and 63-73% water. Saccharum officinarum and its hybrids are grown for the production of sugar, ethanol, and other industrial uses in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. 3.1- Food Uses In most countries where sugarcane is cultivated, there are several foods and popular dishes derived directly from it, such as: + Raw sugarcane Raw sugarcane can be directly chewed to extract the juice. + Sugarcane juice Sugarcane juiceis a combination of fresh juice, extracted by hand or small mills, with a touch of lemon and ice to make a popular drink, known variously as air tebu, usacha rass, guarab, guarapa,guarapo, papelón, aseer asab, ganna sharbat,mosto, caldo de cana, nước miá. Sugarcane juice is one of the most widely drinking juice in India, generally in the Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh, Gujarat, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. Sugarcane juice is not only like any other sweet juice but it has many other nutrients. Sugarcane juice is extracted from the cane by pressing it through iron rollers. It is nutritious and refreshing. It contains about 15 % natural sugar and is rich in organic salts and vitamins. The juice can also be used for drinking or sweetening. In hot summer days, it is a cooling drink. A little lime juice may be mixed in the juice to improve its flavour. Having sugarcane juice on daily basis depends on the individual need and health of the body. A person suffering from jaundice can take more than one glass a day of sugarcane juice (according to the doctor advice) but in limit as it may cause some infections. However one to two cup of sugarcane juice is enough for a normal and healthy person.
+ Sayur nganten Sayur nganten is an Indonesian soup made with the stem of trubuk (Saccharum edule), a type of sugarcane. + Syrup Syrup is a traditional sweetener in soft drinks, now largely supplanted in the US by high fructose corn syrup, which is less expensive because of corn subsidies and sugar tariffs. Gâteau de Sirop is a syrup cake in Cajun cuisine. It is made with cane syrup. + Molasses Molasses is used as a sweetener and a syrup accompanying other foods, such as cheese or cookies. + Jaggery Jaggery is a solidified molasses, known as gur or gud or gul in India, is traditionally produced by evaporating juice to make a thick sludge, and then cooling and molding it in buckets. Modern production partially freeze dries the juice to reduce caramelization and lighten its color. It is used as sweetener in cooking traditional entrees, sweets and desserts. + Falernum Falernum is a sweet, and lightly alcoholic drink made from sugarcane juice. + Cachaça Cachaça is the most popular distilledalcoholic beverage in Brazil; a liquor made of the distillation of sugarcane juice. + Rum Rumis a liquor made from sugarcane products, typically molasses but sometimes also cane juice. It is most commonly produced in the Caribbean and environs. + Basi Basiis a fermented alcoholic beverage made from sugarcane juice produced in the Philippines and Guyana. + Panela Panela is a solid pieces of sucrose and fructose obtained from the boiling and evaporation of sugarcane juice; a food staple in Colombia and other countries in South and Central America. + Rapadura Rapadura is a sweet flour that is one of the simplest refinings of sugarcane juice, common in Latin American countries such as Brazil, Argentina and Venezuela (where it is known as papelón) and the Caribbean. + Rock candy Rock candy is a crystallized cane juice.
3.2- Medicinal Uses As its specific name (officinarum, "of dispensaries") implies, it is also used in traditional medicine both internally and externally. The medicinal use of sugar canes include: 1. Sugarcane juice increases vigour and sexual ability. 2. Improvement takes place in burning in urine, thirst, cough, fever, indigestion, joint pain etc. If sugarcane juice is taken with lemon juice, coconut water and ginger. 3. There will be no fatigue. All limbs will get energy. There will be good digestion if sugarcane juice is taken. 4. Jaundice will be cured if the juice of sugarcane is taken two or thee times a day for about 3 to 4 days. 5. Teeth become clean if sugarcane is chewed well. Gums become strong. Teeth will be strong for a long time. Harmful germs in the mouth will be destroyed. Source: Medicinal benefits of sugarcane From: http://www.facultystudent.com/2012/02/5-medicinal-benefits-of-sugarcane.html.
3.3- Other Uses + Other products of the processingcane sugar Sugarcane processing produces cane sugar (sucrose) from sugarcane. Other products of the processing include Bagasse, molasses, and filtercake. - Bagasse, the residual dry fiber of the cane after cane juice has been extracted, is used for several purposes: 1- Fuel for the boilers and kilns, 2- Production of paper, paperboard products, and reconstituted panelboard, 3- Agricultural mulch, and 4- As a raw material for production of chemicals. The primary use of bagasse and bagasse residue is as a fuel source for the boilers in the generation of process steam in sugar plants. - Molasses is produced in two forms: Blackstrap, which has a characteristic strong flavor, and a purer molasses syrup. Blackstrap molasses is sold as a food and dietary supplement. It is also a common ingredient in animal feed, is used to produce ethanol and rum, and in the manufacturing of citric acid. Purer molasses syrups are sold as molasses, and may also be blended with maple syrup, invert sugars, or corn syrup. Both forms of molasses are used in baking. - Dried filtercake is used as an animal feed supplement, fertilizer, and source of sugarcane wax. + Livestock fodder Sugarcane is a cash crop, but it is also used as livestock fodder. The stems and the byproducts of the sugar industry are used for feeding to livestock. Pigs fed on sugarcane juice and a soy-based protein supplement produced stronger piglets that grew faster than those on a more conventional diet. + Biogas production and biofuel A greener alternative to burning bagasse for the production of electricity is to convert bagasse into biogas. Technologies are being developed to use enzymes to transform bagasse into advanced biofuel and biogas.
4- Growing Sugar cane on the World
4.1- History Sugarcane is indigenous to tropical South and Southeast Asia. Different species likely originated in different locations, with Saccharum barberi originating in India and Saccharum edule and Saccharum officinarum in New Guinea. It is theorized that sugarcane was first domesticated as a crop in New Guinea around 6000 BC. New Guinean farmers and other early cultivators of sugarcane chewed the plant for its sweet juice. Early farmers in Southeast Asia, and elsewhere, may have also boiled the cane juice down to a viscous mass to facilitate transportation, but the earliest known production of crystalline sugar began in northern India. The exact date of the first cane sugar production is unclear. The earliest evidence of sugar production comes from ancient Sanskrit and Pali texts. Portions of the stem of this and several other species of sugarcane have been used from ancient times for chewing to extract the sweet juice. It was cultivated in New Guinea about 8000 years ago for this purpose. Extraction of the juice and boiling to concentrate it was probably first done in India more than 2000 years ago. Around the 8th century, Arab traders introduced sugar from South Asia to the other parts of the Abbasid Caliphate in the Mediterranean, Mesopotamia, Egypt, North Africa, and Andalusia. By the 10th century, sources state that there was no village in Mesopotamia that did not grow sugarcane. It was among the early crops brought to the Americas by the Spanish, mainly Andalusians, from their fields in the Canary Islands, and the Portuguese from their fields in the Madeira Islands. Christopher Columbus first brought sugarcane to the Caribbean during his second voyage to the Americas; initially to the island of Hispaniola (modern day Haiti and the Dominican Republic). In colonial times, sugar formed one side of the triangle trade of New World raw materials, along with European manufactured goods, and African slaves. Sugar (often in the form of molasses) was shipped from the Caribbean to Europe or New England, where it was used to make rum. The profits from the sale of sugar were then used to purchase manufactured goods, which were then shipped to West Africa, where they were bartered for slaves. The slaves were then brought back to the Caribbean to be sold to sugar planters. The profits from the sale of the slaves were then used to buy more sugar, which was shipped to Europe. In the British Empire, slaves were liberated after 1833 and many would no longer work on sugar cane plantations when they had a choice. British owners of sugar cane plantations therefore needed new workers, and they found cheap labour in China, Portugal and India. The people were subject to indenture, a long-established form of contract which bound them to forced labour for a fixed term; apart from the fixed term of servitude, this resembled slavery. The first ships carrying indentured labourers from India left in 1836. The migrations to serve sugarcane plantations led to a significant number of ethnic Indians, southeast Asians and Chinese settling in various parts of the world. In some islands and countries, the South Asian migrants now constitute between 10 to 50 percent of the population. Sugarcane plantations and Asian ethnic groups continue to thrive in countries such as Fiji, Natal, Burma, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, British Guiana, Jamaica, Trinidad, Martinique, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Grenada, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, St. Kitts, St. Croix, Suriname, Nevis, Mauritius. The then British colony of Queensland, now a state of Australia, imported between 55,000 and 62,500 (estimates vary) people from the South Pacific Islands to work on sugarcane plantations between 1863 and 1900. Cuban sugar derived from sugarcane was exported to the USSR where it received price supports and was ensured a guaranteed market. The 1991 dissolution of the Soviet state forced the closure of most of Cuba's sugar industry. Sugarcane remains an important part of the economy of Guyana, Belize, Barbados and Haiti, along with the Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, and other islands. Approximately 70% of the sugar produced globally comes from Saccharum officinarum and hybrids using this species. See also: History of sugar Source: Sugarcane - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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