2- Recognized species of the Genus Zea L. - Maize or Corn
2.1- Species Zea diploperennis - Diploperennial teosinte + Overview Zea diploperennis, the diploperennial teosinte, is a true grass species in the genus Zea and a teosinte. It is perennial. Virtually all populations of this teosinte are either threatened or endangered: Zea diploperennis exists in an area of only a few square miles. The Mexican and Nicaraguan governments have taken action in recent years to protect wild teosinte populations, using both in situ and ex situ conservation methods. Currently, a large amount of scientific interest exists in conferring beneficial teosinte traits, such as insect resistance, perennialism, and flood tolerance, to cultivated maize lines, although this is very difficult due to linked deleterious teosinte traits. + Binomial name Zea diploperennisH.H.IltisDoebley & R.Guzman, 1979 Source: Zea diploperennis - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
1.3- Species Zea mays L. - Maize or Corn + Overview Zea maysL. is a species of plants in the genus ZeaL., in the subtribe Tripsacinae, in the tribe Andropogoneae, in the the subfamily Panicoideae of the grass family (Poaceae). Zea mays, corn or maize, is a annual grass in the Poaceae (grass family) that originated in Central America and is one of the top three cereal crops grown in the world, along with rice (Oryza sativa) and wheat (Triticum spp.), with 2013 global commercial production of dried corn totaling 1,016.4 million metric tons, harvested from over 170 million hectares. + The Names The word maizederives from the Spanish form of the indigenous Taíno word for the plant, mahiz. It is known by other names around the world. The word "corn" outside North America, Australia, and New Zealand refers to any cereal crop, its meaning understood to vary geographically to refer to the local staple. In the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, corn primarily means maize; this usage started as a shortening of "Indian corn". "Indian corn" primarily means maize (the staple grain of indigenous Americans), but can refer more specifically to multicolored "flint corn" used for decoration. In places outside North America, Australia, and New Zealand, cornoften refers to maize in culinary contexts. The narrower meaning is usually indicated by some additional word, as in sweet corn, sweetcorn, corn on the cob, baby corn, the puffed confection known as popcorn and the breakfast cereal known as corn flakes. In Southern Africa, maize is commonly called mielie(Afrikaans) or mealie (English), words derived from the Portuguese word for maize, milho. Maize is preferred in formal, scientific, and international usage because it refers specifically to this one grain, unlike corn, which has a complex variety of meanings that vary by context and geographic region. Maize is used by agricultural bodies and research institutes such as the FAO and CSIRO. National agricultural and industry associations often include the word maize in their name even in English-speaking countries where the local, informal word is something other than maize; for example, the Maize Association of Australia, the Indian Maize Development Association, the Kenya Maize Consortium and Maize Breeders Network, the National Maize Association of Nigeria, the Zimbabwe Seed Maize Association. However, in commodities trading, corn consistently refers to maize and not other grains. + Subspecies Many forms of maize are used for food, sometimes classified as various subspecies related to the amount of starch each has: Flour corn: Zea mays var. amylacea Popcorn: Zea mays var. everta Dent corn : Zea mays var. indentata Flint corn: Zea mays var. indurata Sweet corn: Zea mays var. saccharata and Zea mays var. rugosa Waxy corn: Zea mays var. ceratina Amylomaize: Zea mays Pod corn: Zea mays var. tunicata Larrañaga ex A. St. Hil. Striped maize: Zea mays var. japonica Source: Maize- From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
2.4- Species Zea mexicana - Mexican teosinte + Overview Species Zea mexicana (Schrad.) Kuntze (also called Mexican teosinte) is found in Mexico (from Chihuahua to Oaxaca). Species Zea mexicana (Schrad.) Kuntze is an annual, warm-season grass introduced from Mexico. It is similar to corn in general vegetative appearance and stands 10 to 15 feet in height. It is coarse, branches at the base, and the leaf blades are sword-shaped to 3 ¼ inches wide and 13 to 48 inches long. Clusters of slender “ears” (seed pods) are produced in each of the 5 to 7 uppermost leaf axils. Each ear normally contains 3 to 8 very firm glossy seeds with a marking resembling an insect pupa on the face. Synonyms Euchlaena mexicana Schrad. + Common names The common names are: Teosinte (United States, Australia), Malchari (India), Maizillo (South America).
2.5- Species Zea nicaraguensis + Overview Species Zea nicaraguensis H.H.Iltis & B.F.Benz is found in Nicaragua. Zea nicaraguensisis a true grass species in the genus Zea, in the subtribe Tripsacinae, in the tribe Andropogoneae, in the the subfamily Panicoideae of the grass family (Poaceae). It is considered to be phenotypically the most distinctive, as well as the most threatened teosinte. This teosinte thrives in flooded conditions along 200 m of a coastal estuarine river in northwest Nicaragua. Virtually all populations of teosinte are either threatened or endangered: Zea nicaraguensis survives as about 6000 plants in an area of 200 x 150 m. The Mexican and Nicaraguan governments have taken action in recent years to protect wild teosinte populations, using both in situ and ex situ conservation methods. Currently, a large amount of scientific interest exists in conferring beneficial teosinte traits, such as insect resistance, perennialism, and flood tolerance, to cultivated maize lines, although this is very difficult due to linked deleterious teosinte traits. + Binomial name Zea nicaraguensisH.H.Iltis and B.F. Benz 2000 Source: Zea nicaraguensis- From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
2.6- Species Zea perennis - Perennial teosinte + Overview Zea perennis (Hitchc.) Reeves & Mangelsd., the perennial teosinte, is a true grass species in the genus Zea and a teosinte. Is found in Jalisco. Zea perennis is one of the two perennial species in the genus Zea. The other perennial, Zea diploperennis, is the sister taxon of Zea perennis. Those two species also form a clade with Zea luxurians. Together, the three species make up the Luxuriantes section in the genus Zea. Zea perennis is the sole tetraploid in the genus and fertile hybrids with diploid Zea species are rare. Ribosomal ITS evidence suggested introgression between Zea perennis and Zea mays that must have come from either crossing the ploidy barrier or been from the diploid ancestral pool. Zea perennis is generally considered to be an autotetraploid from some ancestral population of Zea diploperennis. Due to the economic importance of maize, significant scientific interest exists in using the genes of the other Zea species for crop improvement. Zea perennis is of particular interest because of the potential for maize to become a perennial crop. However, difficulty in using genes from Zea perennis in Zea mays mays for crop improvement has occurred because the genes used often contain unwanted teosinte traits. Zea perennis is tropical and not winter hardy, which has led to problems in using its genes to make a perennial form of maize. To overcome this, breeding efforts have focused on deeper rhizomes that can survive below the frost line. + Binomial name Zea perennis (Hitchc.) Reeves & Mangelsd.(1942) Source: Zea perennis- From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia