2- Characteristics of the maim species of the Genus Zingiber
2.1- Species Zingiber barbatum Wall. + Overview Zingiber barbatum(meik-thalinormeik tha-lin) is a medicinal, therapeuticgingerfound inMyanmar. The plant, arhizomegeophyte, is concentrated primarily in theYangon,Bago, andMandalay regions, although specimens have been found in at least two other administrative regions. Researchers from theUniversity of Tsukuba, Padjadjaran University, andKhyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural Universityconsider the plant to be an "underutilized [sic] medicinal plant",being "used in the indigenous system of medicine". Having collated 19 specimens from five of Myanmar's administrative subdivisions, the botanists denoted 29 morphological characteristics, pertaining to growth habits, leaf, pseudo-stem, and rhizome characteristics. The plants which were introduced thence into the Calcutta Garden, blossom freely during the cold and rainy seasons. The spikes issue from the creeping roots, near the stems, or from the base of the latter, and are barely elevated above the surface of the earth; they are sometimes compound, that is, a spikelet is produced from one or two of the lowermost bracts. The whole plant possesses a very faint, though pleasant aromatic smell and taste.
2.2- Species Zingiber mioga (Thunb.) Roscoe : myoga ginger + Overview Japanese gingerormyoga ginger(myōga) is the speciesZingiber miogain the Zingiberaceaefamily. It is an herbaceous, deciduous,perennialnative toJapan,China, and the southern part ofKorea. Only its edible flower buds and flavorful shoots are used in cooking.Flower buds are finely shredded and used inJapanese cuisineas a garnish formisosoup,sunomono, and dishes such as roasted eggplant. In Korean cuisine, flower buds are skewered alternately with pieces of meat and then are pan-fried. A traditional crop in Japan, myoga ginger has been introduced to cultivation inAustraliaandNew Zealandfor export to the Japanese market. As a woodland plant, myoga has specific shade requirements for its growth. It is frost-tolerant to 0°F (-18°C), and possibly colder. + Medicinal properties Some constituents of myoga are cytotoxic; others have shown promise for potentially anticarcinogenic properties.
2.3- Species Zingiber officinale Roscoe : ginger + Overview Ginger(Zingiber officinale) is aflowering plant in thefamilyZingiberaceaewhoserhizome,ginger rootor simplyginger, is widely used as aspiceor amedicine. It is aherbaceousperennialwhich grows annual stems about a meter tall bearing narrow green leaves and yellow flowers. Ginger is indigenous tosouthern China, and was spread eventually to theSpice Islands, other parts ofAsia and subsequently toWest Africaand the Caribbean. Ginger was exported toEuropeviaIndiain the first century AD as a result of the lucrativespice trade.India is now the largest producer of ginger. + Etymology The origin of "ginger" is from the mid-14th century, from Old Englishgingifer, from Medieval Latingingiber, from Latinzingiberi, from Greekzingiberis, fromPrakrit(Middle Indic)singabera, fromSanskritsrngaveram, fromsrngam"horn" +vera- "body", from the shape of its root. The word apparently was readopted in Middle English from Old Frenchgingibre(modern Frenchgingembre). Common names:ginger, common ginger, cooking ginger, Canton ginger, Chinese ginger Synonym: Amomum zingiberL., Zingiber missionisWall.
2.4- Species Zingiber spectabile Griff. : beehive ginger + Overview Zingiber spectabileis a species oftrue ginger, native toMaritime Southeast Asia. It is primarily grown in the West as an ornamental plant, although it has been used inSouth-East Asiaas a medicinal herb. + Names The scientific name of the species,Zingiber spectabile, comes from two words. "Zingiber" is originally from aSanskritword that means "shaped like a horn" and refers to the horn-shaped leaves of most species of ginger. "Spectabile" is derived from theLatinspectabilis, meaning 'visible' or 'spectacular'. The plant is commonly known in the West by the common name "beehive ginger", due to its unusual inflorescenceswhich resemble askep beehive.It is also referred to by the common names "Ginger wort" or "Malaysian ginger". + Description In common with most plants in genusZingiber, the leaves of the plant are long and mostly oblong shaped, tapering to a single point at their tip. Under ideal circumstances, the plant can reach a height of 4.5 metres (15 ft), or even more. The plant's inflorescence is set atop a spike and can measure up to 30 centimetres (12 in) in height. The bracts attached to the structure can differ in colour, from white, to yellow, orange, or even red, often darkening as the bracts mature and develop.The flowers themselves are small, with purple petals and yellow spots, and a fragile, papery texture. + Uses InMalaysia, the plant has been used intraditional medicineto treat inflammation of the eyes.It is prepared for use by pounding the leaves of the plant into a thick paste, and then topically applying it to the required part of the body. It has also been recorded being used to treatburns, as a treatment for headaches and back pain, and as an agent for food preservation. Academic research has found that the plant has antimicrobial properties, and significant concentrations of the Zerumbone synthaseenzyme, which may be effective in treating colon cancer.
2.5- Species Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Roscoe ex Sm. : shampoo ginger + Overview Zingiber zerumbet(awapuhi), also known as shampoo ginger(Malay =lempoyang) or pinecone ginger,is a vigorous species of the ginger familywith leafy stems growing to about 1.2 m (3.9 ft) tall. It is found in many tropical countries. TherhizomesofZ. zerumbethave been used as food flavoring and appetizers in various cuisines while the rhizome extracts have been used inherbal medicine. + Distribution This plant, originating inIndia, was distributed eastward throughPolynesiaand introduced to theHawaiian Islandsin thecanoesof early Polynesian settlers. + Description Z. zerumbetis aperennial. From autumn until spring it goes dormant above ground as the leafy stems shrivel and die away, leaving the pale brown, creeping stems (rhizomes) at ground level. In the spring, the plant springs up anew. The 10-12 blade-shaped leaves 15-20 cm long grow in an alternate arrangement on thin, upright stem to 1.2 m (3.9 ft) tall. Among the leafy stems, the conical or club-shaped flower heads burst forth on separate and shorter stalks. These appear in the summer, after the leafy stems have been growing for a while. The flower heads are initially green and are 3 to 10 cm (1.2 to 3.9 in) long with overlapping scales, enclosing small yellowish-white flowers that poke out a few at a time. As the flower heads mature, they gradually fill with an aromatic, slimy liquid and turn a brighter red color. The flower stalks usually remain hidden beneath the leaf stalks. + Uses - Food uses Thejuicecan be used to quench thirst when out walking in the forest and can be combined withmountain applesas a meal. - Medicinal uses In Hawaii, the spicy-smelling fresh rhizomes were pounded and used as medicine for indigestion and other ailments.The rhizomes can be stored in a cool, dark place to keep for use when needed. In traditional use, the rhizome was ground in a stonemortarwith a stonepestle, was mixed with a ripenonifruit and then used to treat severe sprains.The pulp was placed in a cloth and loosely bound around the injured area. For atoothacheor acavity, the cooked and softened'awapuhirhizome was pressed into the hollow and left for as long as was needed.To ease astomach ache, the ground and strained rhizome material is mixed with water and drunk.Similarly,'awapuhi pakeor ginger root (Zingiber officinale) is widely cultivated and eaten, or made into a tea for indigestion, as well as increased circulation of the blood and an increased sense of well-being.Rhizome extracts have been used inMalaytraditional medicine for various types of ailments such as inflammatory- and pain-mediated diseases, worm infestation, and diarrhea. An extract, zerumbone, from Z. zerumbet, has been found to induce apoptosis, or programmed cell death, in human liver cancer cells, in an in vitro study.